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Science & Medicine


Virologist and Inventor of the smallpox vaccine. 4 page letter entirely in his hand. April 8th, 1811. On the history of his smallpox vaccine's arrival in India in 1811 , including the role of Dr. De Carro and the involvement of the East India Company in its journey. Jenner also emphasizes the incredible number of lives saved by the vaccine: "The advantages derived from the universal adoption of Vaccination throughout the Company's Settlements in India are represented to me as immense. Millions have been already saved from an untimely grave who would have been sent there by the ravages of the Smallpox." Finally, Jenner writes of his goal "to spread Vaccination over the Globe." India was in dire need of Jenner's vaccine. The number of smallpox cases there represented over half the world's total cases. Before millions of lives could be saved in India, the hurdle of reaching the distant country with the perishable vaccine had to be overcome: "I…made several efforts to introduce the new practice there, by sending the matter to Madras with ample instructions to the Medical Men at the different Presidencies." The distance involved in this voyage and the recipient's lack of experience with the vaccine made Jenner's first attempt at transport "ineffectual." Jenner next invited his friend and colleague, Dr. De Carro of Vienna, transport the smallpox vaccination to India while ensuring its safety by making the journey himself. Dr. De Carro was a strong proponent of the vaccine, and had corresponded with Jenner throughout its progress. In 1802, only 3 years after Jenner first announced its invention, De Carro was succeeded in transporting Jenner's smallpox vaccination to India (Baron, 421). Jenner describes the process in our letter: "My Friend and Pupil Dr. De Carro of Vienna soon after availd himself of an opportunity of sending it to Constantinople, and by renewing it at different Stations as it passed on, it at length reached Bombay in a state of perfection." Once the vaccine had successfully arrived in India, the impact was immediate and lasting, saving the lives of millions. As Jenner explains in our letter, "The advantages derived from the universal adoption of Vaccination throughout the Company's Settlements in India are represented to me as immense." The Company Jenner mentions is the British East India Company, which, recognizing the huge impact of the vaccine, rewarded Dr. De Carro with "a pecuniary present." Jenner reflects upon the results of the vaccine in our letter: "Millions have been already saved from an untimely grave who would have been sent there by the ravages of the Smallpox." Jenner's work continued to save vast numbers of lives, as he worked tirelessly "to spread Vaccination over the Globe." Jenner's vaccine continued to save lives long after his his own time. In the early 1950s, 150 years after Jenner first introduced his vaccine, an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox continued to arise each year, a figure which fell to around 10-15 million by 1967 because of vaccination. In 1980, The World Health Organization was finally able to declare smallpox eradicated. The time of this letter allows us the privilege of experiencing Jenner's reflection upon the impact of his work and the outcome of his goal to save lives internationally. This manuscript comes with a letter written in 1970 stating that this is the only extant letter of Jenner from 1811. Signed "Edw. Jenner." Some discoloration on three lines. Overall very good condition.

Item Number: 13540
Price: $85,000


Virologist and Inventor of the smallpox vaccine. Autograph letter signed. 3 pages. London, February 14, 1802. Jenner writes to his friend and vaccine supporter, the surgeon Richard Dunning, who first coined the term "vaccination." Written just a few years after Jenner first published his findings on vaccination in "An Inquiry…," this letter illustrates the dramatic transformation Jenner underwent from country doctor to scientist of international renown. As the news of his discovery spread, Jenner received letters from numerous physicians and philanthropists. He writes in this letter, "In point of politeness, I ought to address a letter to all those Gentl[emen] who so kindly address'd letters to me; but you can hardly guess at the constant succession of (I hardly know how to give these scenes a name) vaccine affairs, that incessantly come before me at this peculiar juncture." The recipient of this letter, Dunning, was the first to coin the term "vaccination," which Jenner had previously referred to as "vaccinism." Dunning's esteem for Jenner was so great that Baron reports he obtained Jenner's so that it could hang in the Medical Society of Plymouth. Jenner was extremely active in facilitating access to his vaccine. He ended nearly in ruin because of his consistent choice to provide the vaccine for free, rather than let anyone go without it. He fulfilled requests of doctors all around the world (the "vaccine affairs" Jenner refers to in this letter), so they could spread it outside the range of the elderly Jenner's free vaccine clinics. Jenner sent vaccine matter to his old friend and colleague, John Clinch, soon after the publication of "An Inquiry…" in 1798. This was followed soon after by another request from the New World, this time from a professor at the Harvard Medical School, Benjamin Waterhouse, who would campaign aggressively on behalf of Jenner's vaccine in the United States. At the time of our letter, Jenner was sending vaccine matter in response to an urgent request from Ceylon, and not long after that, Jenner would accomplish the complex logistical feat of getting his vaccine to India. Dunning was also an intended recipient of Jenner's vaccine matter, as Jenner notes with anxiety as a postscript to this letter: "Have you yet rec.d the Vaccine matter I promised to send you?" And he signs "E Jenner." Repaired tear to the second leaf due to the opening of the seal. The tear goes through the signature but does not affect the text of the letter and has been professionally repaired. Some spotting. Fold separation. The letter is attractive, legible, and in good condition.

Item Number: 13512
Price: $28,000

Safavid Era Medical Treatise with 5 Anatomical Illustrations

Mohammad Salleh Safavid Medical Treatise

A Persian medical treatise written by Safavid physician Mohammad Saleh dating from 1601/2 CE (1011AH) 6.75" x 4" on paper, 136 pp each with 12ll. of cursory nasta'liq script, some words picked out in red, including 5 anatomical illustrations of the body. Colophon on last page in Arabic. With a Safavid paisley fabric and leather trimmed cover, one cover is absent. Text block is detached but complete. This is a fascinating medical treatise dating from the Safavid period which describes in great detail the functioning of the body, its organs and systems as they were understood by physicians at the time. It includes 5 anatomical illustrations depicting a diagram of the human skeleton with corresponding labels for the various bones, the human nervous system and its relation to the muscles, the digestive system which shows the stomach, the left and right kidney, the intestines, the heart, and the liver-all with corresponding names, the final two illustrations relate to the heart and the depict all the blood vessels in relation to it. All the illustrations are intricately drawn and detailed. Beginning the manuscript the author writes in praise of God, king and creator, " who created human beings in details from his infinite wisdom…has strengthened an otherwise weak body and has endowed this body with an order. This order is implemented through the brain." He goes on throughout the manuscript to describe that the body is made up of 4 elements and states that blood is one of the essential necessities of every animal to become mobile or living. It is understood by the author and physician, that blood is the source of the sensations and the function of the brain. He regards the heart as having "the highest rank amongst all the organs" and represents the place for the animal spirit. The author identifies the extremities as the part of the body which is weakest stating " that part which is the furthest from the brain is the weakest." In mentioning how the digestive systems works and the function of the kidneys, the author describes how the kidneys filter the blood making it suitable for the heart. He states, "what enters the kidney is very thick and what goes out of the kidney is very pure." The author makes explicit reference to the famous Greek physician of antiquity, Galen, who was the first to describe the body as divided into 4 humors. Humoralism (?ebb-e j?linusi/?ebb-e yun?ni), or Galenism as it was sometimes called was a medical philosophy that considers illness as an imbalance in the body's four elemental humors (?a-h?r ?el?). These are identified as blood (?un, dam), phlegm (bal?am), yellow bile (?afr?), and black bile (sawd?). Each of these humors was believed to possess two natures: hot (garm) or cold (sard) and dry (?ošk) or moist (tar). Blood was considered to be hot and moist. Humoralism was a prevailing medical understanding of the body and underwent very little conceptual change since Avicenna s time. In his encyclopedic ?a?ira-ye ???razmš?hi, Sayyed Esm??il Jorj?ni (1042-1136) expands Avicenna's humoral precepts covering the temperamental qualities of every organ, their clinical manifestations, and their pathological predispositions by dividing them into physiological categories (hot, cold, dry, humid). Each category has its distinctive trait and each in turn would be predisposed to distinct diseases. The humoral concept put forth by Avicenna lasted well into the Qajar period and dominated the practice of orthodox medicine in Persia until the latter half of the 19th century (Tholozan, pp. 36-37). Furthermore, our author references Avicenna and his understanding of the muscles, and muscle spasms in the human body. With some age related toning. Text block is complete. Overall a rare and remarkable medical treatise with over 300 years of antiquity.

Item Number: 14735
Price: $18,500


Famed physicist responsible for the Theory of Relativity. 1 page Typed Letter Signed on Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists letterhead and dated October 9, 1947. The Committee, which Einstein had founded in 1946 along with Leo Szilard, was an immediate response to the use of atomic bombs at Hirpshima and Nagasaki. Committee members included an array of physicists and scientists, most of whom had been involved in the Manhattan Project and were alarmed by its destructive outcomes. Einstein and Szilard aimed to warn the public of the dangers associated with the international development of nuclear weapons, and they promoted the peaceful use of nuclear energy. World peace, they asserted, was the only condition under which atomic energy could and should be used. In the months leading up to founding the committee,Szilard had generated a petition to President Truman opposing the use of the atomic bomb on moral grounds; among the signers, Einstein himself expressed a sense of responsibility in this matter of the bombings, given that his work had assisted in unharnessing the massive power of the atom. Corresponding with Dr. Donald Kundiger, a chemist and supporter of the Committee, Einstein writes in part: “I have received with pleasure your generous answer to my letter enclosing the recent Statement of the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists with it urgent appeal for the necessity of effective international control of atomic energy. Thank you for your continued help in our campaign to arouse the American people to an understanding of the present very serious situation. An article by Cord Meyer in a recent issue of the Atlantic Monthly develops further some of the topics touched upon in our Statement. If you have not seen Mr. Meyer’s article, I think you will be interested in the enclosed reprint.” Einstein's infamous formula E=mc2 played an important role in the story of nuclear fission research and its resulting bomb. While Einstein's formula does not explain why the nuclear binding energies are as large as they are, but it opens up one way to measure these binding energies. With this realization, and his fear of the work being done in Nazi Germany, Einstein helped set into motion the political process that culminated in the Manhattan project - the development, construction and testing of the first nuclear bombs. Notably, some scientists involved in the project did not fully realize what they were creating. Yet Einstein and collaborator Szilard were aware, and it was Szilard who in 1945 had generated a petition urging President Harry S. Truman to consider an observed demonstration of the power of the atomic bomb prior to releasing it on cities and using it against people. The petition never made it to Truman's desk, and was not even declassified until 1961; and the use of the atomic bomb went ahead, ending World War II. Einstein foresaw the spread of atomic energy and feared what would happen when other nations gained access to atomic weapons, as the Soviet Union would do only two years later in 1949. Thus Einstein became a critical and vocal advocate for controlling atomic energy internationally. Einstein's Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists worked to solicit private donations in order that the contributions it received might be devoted to other groups interested in the field of atomic information and education as well as the National Committee for Atomic Information. Dr. Kundiger, to whom Einstein writes, was a contributor of both funds and key contacts for the group, even at this early stage. As the letter shows, Einstein took a very hands on approach with such contributors, and he moves beyond simply thanking Kundiger in order to engage him in an exchange of timely articles surrounding the political and scientific states of atomic energy. An important historical document that reveals Einstein's personal and professional commitment to the international control and peaceful use of atomic energy. Framed and matted with a portrait and plaque to an overall size of 25 x 21.5". In very good condition.

Item Number: 14951
Price: $12,500


Influential physicist, author, and intellectual, known as the father of modern physics; winner of the 1921 Nobel prize for physics. Typed Letter Signed "A. Einstein," one page, 11" x 8¼," in German, Caputh near Potsdam, Sept. 10, 1931. To Mr. Heinrich York-Steiner in Vienna, a close associate of Theodore Herzl. York-Steiner participated with Herzl in the preliminary conference in Vienna, where the World Congress of Zionists was founded, and the Zionist organ was decided upon. York-Steiner succeeded in obtaining from Pope Pius X the promise that he would place no obstacle in the way of the Jews returning to Palestine. York-Steiner himself died in Tel-Aviv a few years after this letter was written. In this letter Einstein writes that he is enclosing the requested introduction by which he hopes that Mr. York-Steiner will fulfill his purpose. The introduction Einstein mentions is not present. Fine condition; one tiny rust spot at right edge. Einstein and York-Steiner had an ongoing correspondence during those difficult years and Einstein wrote a year before to York-Steiner that he hoped Zionism would unify all Jews. Einstein left his place in Caputh Germany in December 1932 for a lecture tour in the United States. On January 30, 1933, Hitler became Reich Chancellor and the downward spiral began. Einstein never set foot in Germany again and doubled his efforts to help Jews with introductions whenever he could.

Item Number: 13395
Price: $3,500


Molecular biologist, co-discoverer of the molecular structure of DNA. Francis Crick 2 letters. One signed "Francis"; the other signed "Francis Crick". Both letters are one page TLS and dated September 22, 1977 on Salk Institute letterhead where Crick was doing his research at the time. In the first letter, Francis Crick, writes to a researcher, Dr. Hans Joachim Lipps, who worked with Cricks in Cambridge while he was conducting his revolutionary discovery of the structure of DNA. Crick states that he enclosed the recommendation letter for Lipps. This letter is signed in a more personal manner as "Francis." In the second letter, Crick supports Lipp's proposal to study ciliates, which are protozoans that are influential in the nascent stages of molecular development. Ciliates are one of the most important groups of protists, common almost everywhere there is water. In this letter, Crick claims that studying the structure of ciliates "is a neglected field and deserves more support." Crick addresses how "ciliates are not quite the same as most other eucaryotes", but that understanding these particular organisms "may prove to be equally useful" to "fundamental biological research." Crick supports the theory that studying the structure of ciliates could provide insight on the expression of genetics, much in the same way that his study of the structure of DNA contributed to the understanding of genetic coding. Crick indicates that Lipps was a former colleague who worked in his Cambridge laboratory and endorses his qualities as a researcher, describing him as having "an excellent grasp of the opportunities and difficulties of working on ciliates." Crick and Lipps met each other while they were both at Cambridge University, where Crick made his revolutionary DNA discovery. Eventually Lipps was able to get funding for his studies of ciliates and published a well-known paper entitled "Macronucleus Structure and macronucleus development in hypotrichous ciliates" in 1996 which explains how studying ciliates provides an unusual opportunity to study the ways in which DNA-sequences can be manipulated in a differentiating cell. Without Crick's co-discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, important findings, such as the ones that have been made by Lipps, would have been impossible. Both letters are in excellent condition.

Item Number: 14412
Price: $3,500


Famed American inventor. 1 page Document Signed measuring 8" x 13", dated January 1, 1895. An extract from the annual report of the Edison Electric Light Company of Europe, reporting the value of capital stock at two million dollars and outstanding debts totaling less than $22,000. In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company (later known as General Electric or GE) in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said, "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles." Just a year after this letter was written, General Electric became one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly-formed Dow Jones Industrial Average and still remains after 111 years. Backed by financiers, including J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family, Edison established the Edison Electric Light Company to own and license his patents in the electric light field. After more than a year of experiments, Edison finally developed a carbon filament that would burn in a vacuum in a glass bulb for forty hours [See lot 346 for this patent]. They demonstrated the light bulb to their backers, and by the end of the month were exhibiting the invention to the public. Edison then concentrated on developing a complete system of electric generation and distribution that would turn his light bulb into a commercially efficient and economical business. The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York was incorporated on December 17, 1880, to develop and install a central generating station. Edison's system would consist of the large central power plant with its generators (called dynamos); voltage regulating devices; copper wires connecting the plant to other buildings; the wiring, switches, and fixtures in the interiors of those buildings; and the light bulbs themselves. The method of supplying electricity from a central station to illuminate buildings in a surrounding district had already been demonstrated by Edison, and self-contained plants were in place in some of Edison's buildings and in a few private residences in New York, like that of J. P. Morgan At the Pearl Street station in lower Manhattan, Edison's team installed the largest dynamos ever built. Each "Jumbo" dynamo (named after a popular circus elephant) weighed about 27 tons and had an output of 100 kilowatts - enough to power more than 1,100 lights. Each of the six dynamos was driven by a steam engine, which received steam from boilers located in another part of the plant. With the opening of Pearl Street, it was now possible for homes and businesses to purchase electric light at a price that could compete with gas. By 1883, Edison Electric boasted 513 customers. Pearl Street became the model that led the way for electrification in cities and towns across the United States. The plant remained in operation until 1895. Documents signed by Edison relating to his Electric light company are very sought after by collectors.Signed "Thos. A. Edison," In very good condition, with mild toning and wrinkling, pinholes, and separations at folds, repaired from the reverse with archival tape; not affecting signature. Clean and attractive appearance with a strong signature.

Item Number: 12929
Price: $3,500


Co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule. Archive of 2 Typed Letters Signed "Francis". Both letters to Dr. Hans Joachim Lipps, a German molecular biologist. The first letter, dated February 15, 1978 on Salk Institue letterhead, comments on Lipps' study, "The result on the histone genes in Stylonychia is indeed surprising. though on reflection one can't see any good reason against it." The second letter, dated August 14, 1978, on MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology letterhead, congratulates Lipps on new funding, and further discusses the study of coding sequences in Stylonychia, "I look forward to reading about your new results which certainly sound interesting. I wonder whether the coding sequences in Sylonychia have intervening sequences in them." The recipient of these latters, Dr. Lipps, published a paper called "Histone Genes in Macronuclear DNA of the Ciliate Stylonychia Mytilus" in 1978 which examined the DNA structure of the Stylonychia concluding that "in general, no two histone gene probes hybridized to the same macronuclear DNA fragment. This result indicates that genes coding for the five histones in Stylonychia are not located together on the same macronuclear DNA fragments and implies that the five functionally related genes would not be transcribed together as a polycistronic unit." [Chromosoma 6. XII. 1978, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 291-306] This letter is possbily a discussion of this study. Stylonychia is a genus of ciliate, included among the stichotrichs. It is very common in fresh water and soil, found on filamentous algae, surface films, and among particles of sediment. Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. Francis Crick, James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material." In 1978 he held the post of J.W. Kieckhefer Distinguished Research Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. His later research centered on theoretical neurobiology and attempts to advance the scientific study of human consciousness. Letters have been 3-hole punched, but are in excellent condition with clear signatures.

Item Number: 14459
Price: $3,500


French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur Inscribed Portrait Signed. Measuring 8.75" x 11.75",1886 portrait bust by Legamey. Below the image is a facsimile signature. Pasteur has then added in his hand an inscription: "Souvenir of May 11, 1886, to Mr. Maurice Vallery-Radot / [signed] L. Pasteur." Vallery-Radot could be the brother of Pasteur's son-in-law, René Vallery-Radot, who married his daughter Marie-Louise in 1879 and published an important biography of Pasteur in 1884. One year earlier, Pasteur had successfully treated a young boy with his new rabies vaccine. Pasteur is rare in signed large portraits like this example.

Item Number: 14637
Price: $3,500


South African surgeon who, in 1967, performed the first human-to-human heart transplant. 4 page Autograph Manuscript Signed “Ch. Barnard,” with no date but circa 1995. A portion of Barnard’s draft for his 1996 work The Donor in his difficult to decipher hand, headed “Manuscript from ‘The Donor,’” mentioning “artificial heart,” “heart transplantation,” “surgeon,” “artificial kidney,” and “complications.” Barnard makes several edits and corrections throughout. Barnard performed the world's first human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967, in an operation assisted by his brother, Marius Barnard; the operation lasted nine hours and used a team of thirty people. The patient, Louis Washkansky, was a 54-year-old grocer, suffering from diabetes and incurable heart disease. Barnard later wrote, "For a dying man it is not a difficult decision because he knows he is at the end. If a lion chases you to the bank of a river filled with crocodiles, you will leap into the water, convinced you have a chance to swim to the other side." The donor heart came from a young woman, Denise Darvall, who had been rendered brain damaged in an accident on 2 December 1967, while crossing a street in Cape Town. After securing permission from Darvall's father to use her heart, Barnard performed the transplant. Rather than wait for Darvall's heart to stop beating, at his brother, Marius Barnard's urging, Christiaan had injected potassium into her heart to paralyse it and render her technically dead by the whole-body standard. Twenty years later, Marius Barnard recounted, "Chris stood there for a few moments, watching, then stood back and said, 'It works.'" Washkansky survived the operation and lived for 18 days. However, he succumbed to pneumonia as he was taking immunosuppressive drugs. Though the first patient with the heart of another human being survived for only a little more than two weeks, Barnard had passed a milestone in a new field of life-extending surgery. Barnard was celebrated around the world for his accomplishment.Barnard continued to perform heart transplants. A transplant operation was conducted on 2 January 1968, and the patient, Philip Blaiberg, survived for 19 months. Dirk van Zyl, who received a new heart in 1971, was the longest-lived recipient, surviving over 23 years. Barnard was also the first to perform a heterotopic heart transplant, an operation that he devised. Forty-nine consecutive heterotopic heart transplants were performed in Cape Town between 1975 and 1984. Many surgeons gave up cardiac transplantation due to poor results, often due to rejection of the transplanted heart by the patient's immune system. Barnard persisted until the advent of ciclosporin, an effective immunosuppressive drug, which helped revive the operation throughout the world. He was also the first surgeon to attempt xenograft transplantation in a human patient, while attempting to save the life of a young girl unable to leave artificial life support after a second aortic valve replacement. An important manuscript discussing a medical innovator's experiences in improving transplantation and patient survival. In fine condition.

Item Number: 14905
Price: $3,500


American scientist and "Father of the Atomic Bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project." Signed book "Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945." By Henry DeWolf Smyth. Written at the request of Major General L.R. Groves. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945. 264 pages, illustrated. Original cloth and slightly worn dustjacket. Oppenheimer has written his signature "J. R. Oppenheimer" on the front flyleaf. Signatures of Oppenheimer are very uncommon on items related to the Atomic Bomb.

Item Number: 14190
Price: $2,850


Prolific American inventor responsible for the invention of the light bulb. Wonderful Inscribed Signed Photo, sepia tones, b/w, 7 x 10". Edison head and shoulder shot , a very distinguished image. Photographed by Walter Scott Shinn, N.Y. Edison signed boldly in black ink on lower white margin: "To L.S. Hungerford, Thos A. Edison." In excellent condition.

Item Number: 9519
Price: $2,500


American physician who was convinced of the practicality of Edward Jenner's vaccine against smallpox. His work led to the eradication of smallpox in the Americas. Autograph note signed, [after 1814]. Waterhouse writes, "Please to exchange this vol. of Ld. [John Baker-Holroyd, Earl] Sheffield's works of [historian Edward] Gibbon for the 4th." Boldly signed, "B. Waterhouse." An extremely scarce note by the famed Harvard professor and early advocate of vaccination in America. Glue traces at edges, age-toned, otherwise in very good condition. An edition of Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, edited by Sheffield was first issued in more than three volumes in 1814; volume IV includes his classical and critical works.

Item Number: 13511
Price: $2,500


Alexander Graham Bell. Inventor of the telephone. Typed letter signed, mentioning the famous legal issues relating to his invention. Bell originally drew up a patent application for his telephone in 1876, but instructed his lawyers to apply for a patent in Britain before receiving his U.S. Patent. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also working independently, experimenting a telephone design of his own using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a notice of invention with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used his water transmitter. On the same day, a few hours earlier, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's telephone application with the Patent Office. Bell then returned to Boston and drew in his notebook and drew in his notebook a diagram similar to that of Gray's patent caveat. On March 10, 1876, Bell's patent was issued. At that point, neither patent was for a working telephone yet. But Bell succeeded a few days later in getting his telephone to work using Gray's liquid transmitter design and spoke the famous line. "Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you." Gray challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. And so ensued decades of multiple lawsuits on the invention of the telephone. 20 years before these events, in 1854 in France, Charles Bourseul, an employee of the French Telegraphs Company had published his own design for a working telephone. Another French inventor, Philip Reis in fact was the first to use the word telephone in 1861, and claimed his design was in working order with a low volume by 1863. These cases resulted in multiple legal battles in France that were eventually resolved in Bell's favor. Ultimately, Bell was the first man to put the elements together in his telephone design and have a useable prototype. And though only by a few hours, he was also the first to patent that design. Offered here is a typed letter signed, 1 page, 8" x 10.5", Nova Scotia, November 27, 1907. The inventor writes to S. R. Wrightington of Boston in part, "Your note of Nov. 12 sent to Washington and the duplicate sent to me here have been received. I know nothing of any fund, 'paid into court in Paris for my benefit which has never been withdrawn'. I should be glad to have you look into the matter for me." Bell was replying to a letter he had received from Wrightington dated November 12, the original duplicate included in this lot, in that letter, addressed to Bell, Wrightington informs Bell that an attorney in Paris had notified him that "some years ago a fund was paid into Court in Paris for your benefit, which has never been withdrawn." The attorney had requested Wrightington to ask Bell if he wanted him to "collect any monies that may be due you."

Item Number: 13507
Price: $2,500


Mathematician, computer pioneer, inventor of the calculating machine. Autograph letter signed "C. Babbage", to Mrs. Ireland Blackburne of Westminster, asking whether his friend F [Francis] Offley Martin can join her party going to Richmond. 1 pg 4"x3-1/2". With the address leaf bearing Babbage's red wax seal showing a mathematical formula. Undated. Babbage write: "If you should not be overcrowded may I petition for him - I have not however give more than very slight expectation and if you are already full do not think of sending me the invitation. Ever truly yours, C. Babbage. P.S. I will endeavour to join you but am very doubtfull." In good condition.

Item Number: 13859
Price: $1,750


1909 Nobel laureate, known for the development of a practical wireless telegraphy system commonly known as the "radio". Signed Photo, 6.5"x 9", Sepia Toned, bust length. A very official shot of Marconi, dressed in formal suit with white bow tie and several elaborate Grand Cross medals on his jacket. Marconi was decorated by the Tsar of Russia with the Order of St. Anne, the King of Italy created him Commander of the Order of St. Maurice and he also received an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in England. Boldly signed at bottom, "Guglielmo Marconi, 1933" Minor small stains at bottom left, not affecting signature. An impressive image, in excellent condition.

Item Number: 11927
Price: $1,650


American molecular biologist and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Signed typescript of an interview. 1 page. 8.5" x 11." Signed "James D. Watson." The interview reads, in part: "Q:...Can the public be convinced that the Human Genome Project is that important? Watson: There are really two basic forms of diseases that human beings suffer. One is infectious disease, and the other is genetic disease--a disease which results from imperfections in our genetic instruction. Working out the genetic instructions for human existence will make it much easier for us to understand the nature of all these genetic diseases." Fascinating content from one of the founders of the Human Genome Project. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 13378
Price: $950


Co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. "A Passion for DNA" signed book. London: Oxford University Press, 2000. Soft cover, 6" x 9", 250 pages. Signed in black ink on the title page “James D. Watson.” In excellent condition, with a hint of subtle wear to covers.

Item Number: 12930
Price: $650


Scientist and Inventor of the Radio. In 1915, using de Forest's prototype model, a signal was transmitted from Virginia to Paris. This is the beginning of radio. Typed Letter Signed on Personal Letterhead, 1 page, dated June 7, 1938 to Dr. Moses Eisenberg. De Forest writes in part "..we are unable to find any definitive data regarding the actual ohmic resistance of such live structures; the resistance of the dried bones and in cadavers is much too high to be of any value for your purpose. We can only say that the direct current resistance of the structures in which you are interested are probably of the order of 50 ohms or less. The high frequency resistance is of course a different quantity and probably somewhat higher..." Signed in blue "Lee de Forest". In excellent condition.

Item Number: 11208
Price: $585


Irish Geographer. He published "Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States of North America," "Bibliotheca Americana Septentrionalis and "Bibliotheca Americana." Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed on on Development of Boilers and Engines for Early Steam Boats, 1 page, 8 x 10", dated April 15, 1823, Paris. Notes on the explosion of boilers on steam boats, in particular on those low pressure engines which sail on the waters of Ohio and Mississippi. Warden writes in his hand "...The explosion of the boilers in the cases mentioned were with low pressure engines acting with a force of but 4 pounds on every square inch. The high pressure engine of Evans exerts a force of 145 pounds on the square inch. It was in use in Philadelphia before the patent was given to Mr. Gravetich for a similar one whose pressure did not exceed 60 pounds..Evans boiler is rod iron and cylindrical, 30 inches diameter.." He then mentions steam boats with 60 to 75 horsepower. Signed "D.B. Warden". In excellent condition.

Item Number: 9478
Price: $550


An American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Signed book, "Genes, Girls, and Gamow". Later printing, NY: Knopf, 2002. Hardcover with dust jacket, 6 1/2" x 9 1/2", 259 pages. Signed on the title page, "Jim Watson". In excellent condition.

Item Number: 13278
Price: $550


American Astronomer famous for discovering Pluto in 1930. Handwritten signed letter to Hans Muller on University of New Mexico State University Department of Astronomy letterhead. In this letter, Tombaugh gives personal details about his career, mentioning his work at the White Sands Missile Range in the 1950s and his telescope development. In part, "I developed the long focal length tracking telescope...then later, designed the IGOR...for recording very rapid altitude and event phenomena." He signs his name "Clyde W. Tombaugh." Although Tombaugh is best known for discovering the dwarf planet Pluto in 1930, the first object to be discovered in what would later be identified as the Kuiper belt, Tombaugh also discovered many asteroids; he also called for the serious scientific research of unidentified flying objects, or "U.F.O.s". He began designing and building telescopes at a young age and his detailed drawings of the planets based on his observations got him a job offer from the Lowell Observatory in his early 20s, although his family's poverty had prevented him from attending college. Included with the handwritten letter signed by Tombaugh is a letter from Muller to Tombaugh, return envelope, and numerous articles relating to Tombaugh. The letter and accompanying paperwork is in very good condition.

Item Number: 14174
Price: $550


Glenn Seaborg Nobel Prize scientist who discovered plutonium. Section head in the Manhattan Project. In Los Alamos Seaborg discovered isotope plutonium-239 and showed that it was fissionable with slow neutrons and hence plutonium-239 became the explosive material in the atomic bomb. This led to the plutonium part of the Manhattan Project. However in June, 1945, he signed the Franck Report, opposing the use of the bomb against a large city before the demonstration of its destructive power to the enemy. But President Truman ignored its suggestions and ordered the Bombing of Hiroshima. Seaborg later also discovered radioisotopes used to treat millions of cancer patients. Scientific Autograph Manuscript, 3 pages, in pencil on lined paper. Unsigned but entirely in his hand and with Seaborg's personal stamp at the top and the original envelope. The manuscript is a review of a piece of scientific scholarly writing monograph. Seaborg writes: "..a part of a series on Analytical Chemistry of the Elements prepared by the Vernadski Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry...it deals with the transplutonium elements with atomic numbers 95 to 104, inclusive and covers the literature through 1969…The title is misleading in that the monograph covers much more than analytical chemistry, to the pleasant surprise of the reviewer. The first chapter includes a brief account of the discovery of these elements … Included is a discussion of the radioactive proportions …of the most important (about 25 isotopes) of the methods of production… Included also is a discussion of the solid compounds and their methods of formation… Chapter III is devoted to the methods of analytical determination-radiometric chemical separation by ion exchange and solvent extractions… reactions with organic reagents… This monograph…would be a worthwhile addition to the library of…inorganic chemists." Unsigned. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 11221
Price: $500


American molecular biologist and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Signed typescript of an interview. 1 page. 8.5" x 11." Signed "James D. Watson." The interview reads, in part: "Watson: DNA provides the information that makes possible our existence and the exisentence of every form of life. If you want to understand human beings in this very complete sense, you have got to understand the nature of DNA, how complicated it is, what sorts of instructions it carries... Q:...Can the public be convinced that the Human Genome Project is that important? Watson: There are really two basic forms of diseases that human beings suffer. One is infectious disease, and the other is genetic disease--a disease which results from imperfections in our genetic instruction. Working out the genetic instructions for human existence will make it much easier for us to understand the nature of all these genetic diseases..." Fascinating content from one of the founders of the Human Genome Project. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 14354
Price: $480


American molecular biologist and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Signed typescript of an interview. 1 page. 8.5" x 11." Signed "James D. Watson." The interview reads, in part: "Q: How do you view the concern that DNA techniques could take us closer to selective breeding of humans and similar genetic experimentation? Watson: I don't really know anyone who's thinking of these techniques to breed a superrace. We're just hoping that we can cure a lot of diseases. For instance, we don't understand the real causes of mental diseases. Through the recombinant DNA procedures, hopefully, we're going to get at the real causes of many serious mental diseases. If we know the causes, then we may be better able to treat the people..." Watson states a lot more on DNA. Fascinating content from one of the founders of the Human Genome Project. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 13380
Price: $400


American molecular biologist and co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Signed typescript of an interview. 1 page. 8.5" x 11." Signed "James D. Watson." The interview reads, in part: "Watson: DNA provides the information that makes possible our existence and the exisentence of every form of life. If you want to understand human beings in this very complete sense, you have got to understand the nature of DNA, how complicated it is, what sorts of instructions it carries... Q:...Can the public be convinced that the Human Genome Project is that important? Watson: There are really two basic forms of diseases that human beings suffer. One is infectious disease, and the other is genetic disease--a disease which results from imperfections in our genetic instruction. Working out the genetic instructions for human existence will make it much easier for us to understand the nature of all these genetic diseases..." Fascinating content from one of the founders of the Human Genome Project. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 13379
Price: $400


German Chemist. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953 for discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry. He also developed Staudinger’s Law, which states that the viscosity of a molecule is inversely proportional to its molecular weight. Staudinger himself saw the potential for this science long before it was fully realized. “It is not improbable,” Staudinger smartly commented in 1936, “that sooner or later a way will be discovered to prepare artificial fibers from synthetic high-molecular products, because the strength and elasticity of natural fibers depend exclusively on their macro-molecular structure – i.e., on their long thread-shaped molecules.” Staudinger received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.” In 1999, the American Chemical Society and Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker designated Staudinger's work as an International Historic Chemical Landmark. His pioneering research has afforded the world myriad plastics, textiles, and other polymeric materials which make consumer products more affordable, attractive and fun. Through his research, Staudinger also discovered that the viscosity of a molecule is inversely proportional to its molecular weight, a principle today known as Staudinger's Law. 1 Typed Letters Signed,1 page, in German, on State Research Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry letterhead, January 26, 1949. "Upon receipt of your telegram I have written to gentlemen Reichstein and Rupe. Awaiting further details..H. Staudinger". Institute stamp and in excellent condition.

Item Number: 11278
Price: $385


Steve Wozniak constructed the very first original Apple 1, manually connecting the wires to every chip on the board. In this way, the design was debugged and a final schematic was produced and then the PC boards were designed and built according to that schematic. The original Apple Computer, also known retroactively as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a personal computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. They were designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak.[1][2] Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer. The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only means of transportation, a VW van [3] and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500.[4] It was demonstrated in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California.[5] 11" x 17" Apple I Schematic that has been signed by Steve Wozniak. The schematic is in BRAND NEW/NEVER BEFORE DISPLAYED condition. The signature has been authenticated by PSA/DNA and the PSA/DNA certification number for this schematic is: Q62304 PLEASE NOTE: The schematic itself is a reproduction but has been authentically hand signed by Mr. Wozniak.

Item Number: 13566
Price: $325


COMPLETE ORIGINAL newspaper , the Kansas City Journal (Missouri) dated Aug 3, 1881. Inside page, 1/2 column report headlined: "The Phonograph." Tells of its invention, its future and about Edison, its inventor. In excellent condition.

Item Number: 9858
Price: $185


1961 Nobel Laureate in Physics for his researches on the resonance absorption of radiation from nuclear transitions and his discovery of the Moessbauer effect, which bears his name. This property was used in the 1960 classic general relativity experiment that proved Einstein's theory. Typed Letter Signed, 1 page, in German, dated December 17, 1968, on Technical University in Munich letterhead. Moessbauer writes: "Attached you will find an offprint describing the fundamental beliefs based on our reform in Munich." Signed "Rudolf Moessbauer". In excellent condition.

Item Number: 11284
Price: $180


Distinguished Engineer who played a major role in the development of the submarine for practical employment. In 1887, Lake's "Argonaut" became the first successful voyage by submarine into the open sea. Lake also innovated submarine torpedo boats, sunken ship detection devices and many other nautical inventions. Signed check, entirely in his hand, 3x6", dated "Aug. 2, 1930" made out for "Cash" for the amount of "$90.00". Boldly signed: "Simon Lake". Cancellation holes do touch signature. Includes photo; perfect for framing.

Item Number: 3383
Price: $175


Father of the wireless telegraph which evolved into the radio. In 1909, he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics. original newspaper Feb. 25, 1909 from New Brunswick (SAINT JOHN GLOBE). Includes article titled "MARCONI'S LATEST WORK" Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of wireless telegraphy, who will see what can be done with his wonderful invention in aiding the direction and management of airships. the experiment has been tried recently with partial success, and Mr. Marconi hopes to satisfactorily solve the problem- also has a picture of G.Marconi size 4"x3". In nice condition with minor edge flaws.

Item Number: 9980
Price: $125